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[Seminar Notification]: WON-IL JEONG, DVM, Ph.D.(10.15.2020)
2020-10-08
[Seminar Notification]: WON-IL JEONG, DVM, Ph.D.(10.15.2020)


1. Title: Recent Advances in Knowledge of Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
2. Speaker: WON-IL JEONG, DVM, Ph.D.
3. Affiliation: Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST)
4. Date: 2020. 10. 15. (Thu) 16:00
5. Place: Online Seminar(Zoom)
6. Abstract:

First, activation of hepatocyte cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1R) by hepatic stellate cell (HSC)-derived 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) drives de novo lipogenesis in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) including alcoholic fatty liver (steatosis). How alcohol stimulates 2-AG production in HSCs is unknown. Here, we report that chronic alcohol consumption induced hepatic cysteine deficiency and subsequent glutathione depletion by impaired transsulfuration pathway. A compensatory increase in hepatic cystine-glutamate anti-porter xCT boosted extracellular glutamate levels coupled to cystine uptake both in mice and in patients with ALD. Alcohol also induced the selective expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor-5 (mGluR5) in HSCs where mGluR5 activation stimulated 2-AG production. Consistently, genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of mGluR5 or xCT attenuated alcoholic steatosis in mice via the suppression of 2-AG production and subsequent CB1R-mediated de novo lipogenesis. We conclude that a bidirectional signaling operates at a metabolic synapse between hepatocytes and HSCs through xCT-mediated glutamate-mGluR5 signaling to produce 2-AG, which induces CB1R-mediated alcoholic steatosis.

Second, Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. ROS generation by infiltrating macrophages involves multiple mechanisms, including Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated NADPH oxidase (NOX) activation. Here, we show that palmitate-stimulated CD11b+F4/80low hepatic infiltrating macrophages, but not CD11b+F4/80high Kupffer cells, generate ROS via dynamin-mediated endocytosis of TLR4 and NOX2, independently from MyD88 and TRIF. We demonstrate that differently from LPS-mediated dimerization of the TLR4-MD2 complex, palmitate binds a monomeric TLR4-MD2 complex that triggers endocytosis, ROS generation and increases pro-interleukin-1β expression in macrophages. Palmitate-induced ROS generation in human CD68lowCD14high macrophages is strongly suppressed by inhibition of dynamin. Furthermore, Nox2-deficient mice are protected against high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. Therefore, endocytosis of TLR4 and NOX2 into macrophages might be a novel therapeutic target for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.